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Synchronous operations in JavaScript entails having each step of an operation waits for the previous step to execute completely. This means no matter how long a previous process takes, subsquent process won't kick off until the former is completed. Asynchronous operations, on the other hand, defers operations. Any process that takes a lot of time to process is usually run alongside other synchronous operation and completes in the future.

This lesson dwells on fundamental concepts that JavaScript relies on to handle asynchronous operations. These concepts include: Callback functions, Promises and the use of Async and Await to handle deferred operations in JavaScript.

Asynchronous Operations

Operations in JavaScript are traditionally synchronous and execute from top to bottom. For instance, a farming operation that logs farming process to the console:

console.log("Plant corn");
console.log("Water plant");
console.log("Add fertilizer");

If we run the code above, we have the following logged in the console:

Plant corn
Water plant
Add fertilizer

Now let's tweak that a bit so that watering the farm take longer than planting and fertilizing:

console.log("Plant maize");

setTimeout(function() {
  console.log("Water plant")

console.log("Add fertilizer");

We get the following in the console:

    Plant Maize
    Add fertilizer
    Water plant

Why? The setTimeout function makes the operation asynchronous by deferring plant watering to occur after 3 seconds. The whole operation doesn’t pause for 3 seconds so it can log “Water plant”. Rather, the system goes ahead to apply fertilizers and then water plant after 3 seconds.

Functions are First-Class Objects

It's important to keep in mind before going through the rest of these lessons that JavaScript Functions are first-class objects in and as such can functions have the ability to:

  • Be assigned to variables (and treated as a value)
  • Have other functions in them
  • Return other functions to be called later

Callback Functions

When a function simply accepts another function as an argument, this contained function is known as a callback function. Using callback functions is a core functional programming concept, and you can find them in most JavaScript code; either in simple functions like setInterval, event listening or when making API calls.

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Callback functions are written like so:

setInterval(function() {
}, 1000);

setInterval accepts a callback function as its first parameter and also a time interval. Another example using .map();

const list    = ['man', 'woman', 'child']

// create a new array
// loop over the array and map the data to new content
const newList = list.map(function(val) {
  return val + " kind";

// newList = ['man kind', 'woman kind', 'child kind']

In the example above, we used the .map() method to iterate through the array list, the method accepts a callback function which states how each element of the array will be manipulated. Callback functions can also accept arguments as well.

Naming Callback functions

Callback functions can be named or anonymous functions. In our first examples, we used anonymous callback functions. Let’s look at a named callback function:

function greeting(name) {
  console.log(`Hello ${name}, welcome to Scotch!`);

The above function is assigned a name greeting and has an argument of name. We're also using an ES6 template string. Let’s use this function as a callback function.

function introduction(firstName, lastName, callback) {
  const fullName = `${firstName} ${lastName}`;


introduction('Chris','Nwamba', greeting); // Hello Chris Nwamba, welcome to Scotch!

Notice the usage of the callback? The succeeding brackets, () after the function are not used when passing the function as a parameter.

Note: The callback function is not run unless called by its containing function, it is called back. Hence, the term call back function

Multiple functions can be created independently and used as callback functions. These create multi-level functions. When this function tree created becomes too large, the code becomes incomprehensible sometimes and is not easily refactored. This is known as callback hell. Let’s see an example:

// a bunch of functions are defined up here

// lets use our functions in callback hell
function setInfo(name) {
  address(myAddress) {
    officeAddress(myOfficeAddress) {
      telephoneNumber(myTelephoneNumber) {
        nextOfKin(myNextOfKin) {
          console.log('done'); //let's begin to close each function! 

We are assuming these functions have been previously defined elsewhere. You can see how confusing it is to pass each function as callbacks. Callback functions are useful for short asynchronous operations. When working with large sets, this is not considered best practice. Because of this challenge, Promises were introduced to simplify deferred activities.


I promise to do this whenever that is true. If it isn't true, then I won't.

This is a simple illustration of JavaScript Promises. Sounds like an IF statement? We’ll soon see a huge difference.

A promise is used to handle the asynchronous result of an operation. JavaScript is designed to not wait for an asynchrnous block of code to completely execute before other synchronous parts of the code can run. For instance, when making API requests to servers, we have no idea if these servers are offline or online, or how long it takes to process the server request.

With Promises, we can defer execution of a code block until an async request is completed. This way, other operations can keep running without interruption.

Promises have three states:

  • Pending: This is the initial state of the Promise before an operation begins
  • Fulfilled: This means the specified operation was completed
  • Rejected: The operation did not complete; an error value is usually thrown

Creating a Promise

The Promise object is created using the new keyword and contains the promise; this is an executor function which has a resolve and a reject callback. As the names imply, each of these callbacks returns a value with the reject callback returning an error object.

const promise = new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
  // promise description

Let’s create a promise:

const weather = true
const date    = new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
  if (weather) {
    const dateDetails = {
      name:     'Cubana Restaurant',
      location: '55th Street',
      table:    5

  } else {
    reject(new Error('Bad weather, so no Date'))

If weather is true, resolve the promise returning the data dateDetails, else return an error object with data Bad weather, so no Date.

Using Promises

Using a promise that has been created is relatively straightforward; we chain .then() and .catch() to our Promise like so:

  .then(function(done) {
    // the content from the resolve() is here
  .catch(function(error) {
    // the info from the reject() is here

Using the promise we created above, let's take this a step further:

const myDate = function() {
    .then(function(done) {
      console.log('We are going on a date!')
    .catch(function(error) {


Since the weather value is true, we call mydate() and our console logs read:

We are going on a date!
  name: 'Cubana Restaurant',
  location: '55th Street'
  table: 5

.then() receives a function with an argument which is the resolve value of our promise. .catch returns the reject value of our promise.

Note: Promises are asynchronous. Promises in functions are placed in a micro-task queue and run when other synchronous operations complete.

Chaining Promises

Sometimes we may need to execute two or more asynchronous operations based on the result of preceding promises. In this case, promises are chained. Still using our created promise, let’s order an uber if we are going on a date.

So we create another promise:

const orderUber = function(dateDetails) {
  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
    const message = `Get me an Uber ASAP to ${dateDetails.location}, we are going on a date!`;


This promise can be shortened to:

const orderUber = function(dateDetails) {
  const message = `Get me an Uber ASAP to ${dateDetails.location}, we are going on a date!`;
  return Promise.resolve(message)

We chain this promise to our earlier date operation like so:

const myDate = function() {
    .then(function(done) {
    .catch(function(error) {


Since our weather is true, the output to our console is:

Get me an Uber ASAP to 55th Street, we are going on a date!

Once the orderUber promise is chained with .then, subsequent .then utilizes data from the previous one.

Async and Await

An async function is a modification to the syntax used in writing promises. You can call it syntactic sugar over promises. It only makes writing promises easier.

An async function returns a promise -- if the function returns a value, the promise will be resolved with the value, but if the async function throws an error, the promise is rejected with that value. Let’s see an async function:

async function myRide() {
  return '2017 Dodge Charger';

and a different function that does the same thing but in promise format:

function yourRide() {
  return Promise.resolve('2017 Dodge Charger');

From the above statements, myRide() and yourRide() are equal and will both resolve to 2017 Dodge Charger. Also when a promise is rejected, an async function is represented like this:

function foo() {
  return Promise.reject(25)

// is equal to
async function() {
  throw 25;


Await is only used with an async function. The await keyword is used in an async function to ensure that all promises returned in the async function are synchronized, ie. they wait for each other. Await eliminates the use of callbacks in .then() and .catch(). In using async and await, async is prepended when returning a promise, await is prepended when calling a promise. try and catch are also used to get the rejection value of an async function. Let's see this with our date example:

async function myDate() {
  try {

    let dateDetails = await date;
    let message     = await orderUber(dateDetails);

  } catch(error) {

Lastly we call our async function:

(async () => { 
  await myDate();

Note we used the ES6 arrow function syntax here.


Understanding the concepts of Callbacks, Promises, and Async/Await can be rather confusing, but so far we have seen how they work when carrying out asynchronous operations in JavaScript.

They come in handy a lot when making API requests and event handling. You can learn more about using promises here and async functions here.

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